1 Algae in diversified habitats (Terrestrial, fresh water, marine); Thallus

organization, Cell structure and reproduction in different classes/groups; criteria

in classification of Algae; Economic Importance of Algae.

2 General characteristic in different classes/groups of fungi, cell ultra structure,

cell wall composition, reproduction, heterothallism, para sexuality, recent trends

in classification, economic importance of fungi, mycorrhizae and lichens.

3 Archaebacteria, eubacteria and cyanobacteria, ultra-structure and reproduction,

Prions, L-Forms, Virioids, characteristics and ultra structure of virions,

Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma and Phytoplasma - General characters and role in

causing plant diseases, microbiology of water, air and soil.

4 General account of diseases caused by plant pathogens, molecular basis of host

parasite interaction, pathogen attack and defense mechanism, diseases of

important field crops of Rajasthan (red rot of sugar cane, rust of wheat, covered

smut of wheat, loose smut of wheat, green ear disease of bajra, leaf spot and

smut of jowar, ergot and smut of bajra, root knot and rot diseases of vegetables;

diseases control and the role of information technology.

5 General characters, structure, reproduction, evolution and interrelationships in

Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Evolution of Stele; heterospory

and seed habit, principles of palaeobotany.

6 Taxonomic hierarchy, principles of nomenclature, taxonomic tools, important

systems of classification (Bentham and Hooker, Engler and Prantl, Hutchinson

and Takhtajan) Role of morphology, anatomy, embryology, palynology,

cytology, phytochemistry, genome analysis and nucleic acid hybridization in

taxonomy, taxonomy of some selected families of Rajasthan (Leguminoceae

Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadeceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and

Poaceae), phylogeny of angiosperms.

7 General concept of plant morphology - origin and evolution of flower. primitive

living angiosperms, foliar stamens, open carpels, organization of root and shoot

apical meristems.

8 Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, pollen pistil

interaction, fertilization, endosperm development and embryogenesis, seed

development and fruit formation, polyembryony apomixis, embryo culture,

biochemistry and molecular biology of fruit maturation.

9 Basic concepts of ecology, ecological factors affecting plant growth, Principles

of limiting factors, Population characteristics, population interaction, r and K

selection, Genecology and range extensions, community characteristics,

community classification, continuum concept, ecological niche, plant

succession in various habitats, concept of climax. Structure and function of

ecosystem, energy flow and biogeochemical cycles (N,P,C,S), primary

production, plant indicators, major biomes of the world. Phytogeographical

regions of India, vegetation of Rajashan. Ecosystem services.

10 Environmental pollution- air, water, noise and soil, Green house effect, Ozone

layer depletion, Acid rain, Concept of biodiversity with special reference to

India, Hot spots, strategies for conservation of flora and fauna, Bio monitoring,

Environmental Impact Assessment.

11 Plant civilization, centers of origin, gene diversity, utilization, cultivation and

improvement of plants of food (rice, wheat, bajra, pulses, green gram, moth and

beans) Oil seeds (mustard, soybean and ground nut), drugs (Rauvolfia, Ephedra,

Papaver, Atropa, Cinchona and Withania), Fibre - Cotton, jute & coir and

plants of industrial value - Tobacco, sugarcane, tea and coffee. Ethnobotany,

underexploited plants of potential medicinal and food value with special

reference to Rajasthan.

12 Light and Electron microscopy (TEM & SEM), Confocal Electron microscopy,

phase contrast, fixation and staining, HPLC, electrophoresis, ELISA,

Spectrophotometry, Centrifugation.




1 Plant-water relation, membrane transport and translocation of water and solutes.

2 Enzymes - Classification, mechanism of action, role in metabolism, enzyme, kinetics, regulation of enzyme activity, active sites, coenzymes,

Activators and inhibitors, isozymes.

3 Photosynthesis - Pigments, photophosphorylation, Mechanism of photosynthesis, photorespiration, photosynthesis in C4 plants, CAM.

4 Nitrogen metabolism - amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis. Fatty acid metabolism. Signal transduction: overview receptors and Gproteins,

specific signaling mechanism in bacteria and proteins. 

5 Respiration - Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Glycogen breakdown, inter conversion of hexoses and pentoses.

6 Seed dormancy and germination, hormonal regulation of growth and development. Physiological effects and mechanism of action of auxins,

gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, plant rythms and biological clock, secondary metabolites, plant responses to

biotic and abiotic stresses. Physiology of flowering- Photoperiodism and  Vernalization.

7 Ultra structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell membrane structure and function, cell organelles- structure and functions, Nucleus - structure, nuclear pores, DNA Structure - A,B and Z forms, replication, damage and repair, transcription, splicing and nucleolus, cells cycle, structure of chromatin and its organization, specialized types of chromosomes, banding patterns, chromosomal aberration and polyploidy.

8 Genetics of eukaryote and prokaryote organelles, mapping of bacteriophage genome, genetic transformation, conjugation and transduction in bacteria, genetics of mitochondria and cytoplasmic male


9 Techniques in cell biology-in situ hybridization FISH, GISH, genetic code, transcription and translation, operon model, RNA polymerase. Genetic mapping : Independent assortment and crossing over, molecular mechanism of recombination, chromosome mapping, linkage groups. Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutation and their role in evolution, principles of plant breeding important conventional methods of self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops, mutation breeding.

10 Basic concepts, principles and scope of Biotechnology, plant cell and tissue culture, concept of totipotency, micropropagation by organogenesis and adventitious shoot bud differentiation, axillary bud proliferation and embryogenesis, somatic hybridization - protoplast isolation, fusion and culture; artificial seeds, production of hybrids and somaclones, hybrids, production of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds.

11 Recombination DNA Technology : Restriction enzymes, reverse transcriptase. Gene cloning, principles and techniques, construction of genomic/s, DNA libraries, DNA synthesis and sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, DNA finger printing.Genetic engineering of plants : Aims, strategies for development of transgenics, Agrobacterium and microinjection mediated gene transfer in plants, intellectual property rights and possible ecological risks and ethical concerns, microbial genetic manipulation. Structural and functional genomics, microarray, genome sequencing projects (with special reference to rice, wheat, chick pea and tomato) and proteomics.

12 Principles and practices of statistical methods in biological research, samples and population, Data collection and processing, Basic statistics (averages, statistics of dispersion, coefficient of variation, standard error and deviation); confidence limits, probability, Distribution (Binomial, Poisson and Normal) Tests of statistical significance, simple correlation and regression, Analysis of variance.